A surgery refers to a medical procedure where through means of operative manuals and instruments an acute illness, an injury, deformity, rupture, etc. are treated. Surgery is mostly employed in acute ailments or injuries unlike a chronic disease where surgery comes into the scene after the chronic disease cause a certain rupture. Different surgeries have different causes. Some are to cure an ailment, some to fix a wound, some to prevent the spread of a particular disease as is the case with biopsies.
The history of surgery is long and vast, records date back to the era of the Indus Valley Civilization, the Chinese civilization, Hellenistic Greece. In medieval Europe it were the barbers who performed surgery under the direction of the doctors. In fact, the organization of the United Company of Barber Surgeons in London is considered to have served as the precursor of the well-renowned Royal College of Surgeons of England.
In the mid-19th century, the knowledge of anatomy had rendered capable of operative procedures like removal of kidney stones, amputations, treating of tumors. This led to surgery being established in the medical curriculum. However, these procedures were usually conducted by putting the patient undert the influence of opium or getting them drunk. It was not until the introduction of ether anesthesia that surgery face limitation in expansion within the field of medical treatment. Along with ether anesthesia it was the understanding of the role that bacteria played in infection, as expounded by Pasteur and further implementing it in treatment of wounds that modern surgery arrives.
With changing time, the process of surgery has also undergone a sea of changes. Nowadays with advancement in science and technology surgeons can introduce cameras into the body to conduct surgeries through small incisions. Lasers are in wide usage to burn tumors, treat skin lesions, reattach torn retinas, coagulate blood vessels all of which is beyond the scope of conventional surgical procedure. Washington Nerve Institute research team.