Wound Surgery: This encompasses the healing of the wound and the prevention of any sort of bacterial infection.
Extirpative surgery: To extirpate is to pull up by the roots. Under this category you have those that are concerned with cancer, mastectomy – which is the removal of the breast, hysterectomy (removal of uterus) and so on.
Reconstructive surgery: As it can be made out from the name, this category of surgeries have to do with the repair or replacement of damaged tissues, in burns, degenerative diseases. It mainly involves grafting of the skin or flesh, replacing the affected area by taking a portion from some other, fleshier part of the body or from the bodies of other patients. The a good example for this category would be plastic surgery.
Transplantation surgery: In these types of surgeries artificial devices (prostheses) are used to replace damaged or diseased organs or tissues. The use of metal in the reconstruction of hip joints and the use of plastic valves to replace those in the heart. Transplantation surgery also involves the use of organs transplanted from other bodies to replace diseased organs in patients, Kidneys being the most commonly transplanted organs.