That field of medical treatment that deals with the treatment, diagnosis, surgery and restoration of neural problems including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and the cerebrovascular aspect of the extra cranial region is termed Neurosurgery or neurological surgery, sometimes colloquially called as brain surgery. This is, however, not to be confused with the field of neuropathology where the diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system are studied, which includes the brain, the spinal cord, neural tissues.
How to treat a pinched nerve?
A pinched nerve is a kind of condition in the spinal column that is caused by the impingement of a bone into the nerves of the column. It is like when you squeeze a straw thereby, restricting the flow of your drink. A pinched nerve can cause back pains and is much prevalent amongst old people. Treatment of this condition is done by a procedure called decompression where the impinging piece of bone is removed from the nerve root, which is called the lamina, to alleviate the pain.
The decompression procedures are of 3 types:
- Laminotomy: This procedure involves removing a part of the lamina to open up the space that was taken by the impinging bone.
- Disectomy: This is a surgical procedure of removing a part of the disc that is squeezing the nerve. A disectomy can also be done together with laminotomy although the decision lies in the hands of the doctor.
- Laminectomy: In this procedure, the entire lamina is removed in order to enlarge the space of the spinal column.
More nerve surgeries
An injury that has cause a breakage in the connection between two nerves can be fixed through nerve regeneration, a surgical procedure of directing the damaged nerve towards the direction of the sensory unit. This is performable if the nerve has been cut sharply but in cases where the nerve is irreparably damaged such a procedure might not bear any result.
In cases of those injuries or damages where the nerve has been trimmed away a nerve graft is used. A nerve graft is a kind of bridge that connects the gap between two nerves. These grafts are taken from other parts of the body. The nerves are taken out depending on the need of usage. However, the grafting process has side-effects, for instance, numbness in the areas from which the nerve has been taken. The numbness will not last forever just for the time it takes the are of the donor nerve . When numbness persists for too long, a nerve transfer is suggested. In this process the functioning nerves close to the injured or problematic area are taken and transferred to the injured part. This process ensures faster recovery.
What happens after surgery
After the surgical procedure has been performed the patient is shifted to a post-anesthesia care unit where after the patient regains consciousness her vitals are checked along with the outcome of the surgery, the area of surgery is also kept under check for signs of infections. Infections are usually treated with topical antibiotics. Although there is a debate about the use of topical antibiotics as a deterrent of infection, since it is considered to cause skin eruptions, dermatitis, cause the body to become antibiotic resistant, medical researchers are yet to conclude on such side-effects of topical antibiotics.
There are possibilities of a certain amount of complications after the operation. One such is obesity. Obesity generally occurs as an effect to obesity hypoventilation syndrome, pulmonary embolism, cardiovascular causes, ateclasis. Prolonged fixture of surgical drains, which are used to remove excess blood from the wound, can get clogged leading to the formation of abscesses. These complications are more prevalent among the older and young population. Older people, owing to frail health can end up with post-operative complications, for which, respective tests need to be conducted to eke out the probable outcome of the body owing to a particular surgery. For children and adolescents, owing to the fact that their bodies are still in the process of development, post-op complications are highly likely. Besides these, those suffering from chronic ailments must be tested before send for a surgery.